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Texas Peach, Prunus persica in Spring ….Cây Đào hoa đỏ vào muà xuân….#23

The Peach tree at the front yard of my friend

Cây Đào trước nhà một người bạn.

Taken on February 19, 2012 in Hewitt city , Texas state , Southern of Americ

Chụp hình vào ngày 19-2-2912 tại thành phố Hewitt, bang Texas , thuộc miền Nam nước Mỹ .

Ở các tỉnh thuộc miền Bắc nước ta ( tiếp giáp vùng biên giới gần Trung Quốc ) như Cao Bằng, Lạng Sơn có trồng rất nhiều cây Đào lông và thu hoạch rất tốt mỗi mùa vụ .

Vietnamese plants this Prunus persica in some provincals belongs to Northern of Vietnam , near the border between Viet Nam and China .

Vietnamese named : Đào lông ( có lớp lông măng trên trái Đào ).
Common names : Peach, Texas Peach
Scientist name : Prunus persica (L.) Batsch.
Synonyms :
Family : Rosaceae / Rose family
Kingdom Plantae – Plants
Subkingdom Tracheobionta – Vascular plants
Superdivision Spermatophyta – Seed plants
Division Magnoliophyta – Flowering plants
Class Magnoliopsida – Dicotyledons
Subclass Rosidae
Order Rosales
Genus Prunus L. – plum
Species Prunus persica (L.) Batsch – peach

**** www.duoclieu.org/2012/02/cay-ao-prunus-persica-l-batch-ho…
**** www.vho.vn/wap/?module=1&id=12146
**** www.yhoccotruyen.htmedsoft.com/baocheduoc/htmdocs/DaoNhan…

**** www.lrc-hueuni.edu.vn/dongy/show_target.plx?url=/thuocdon…

Ðào – Prunus persica (L,) Batsch, thuộc họ Hoa hồng – Rosaceae.

Mô tả: Cây gỗ nhỏ, cao 8-10m, mọc lâu năm, thân nhẵn, phân cành nhiều, màu đo đỏ, chồi có lông mềm. Lá hình bầu dục ngọn giáo, dài 8-15cm, rộng 2-3cm, có mũi nhọn dài, nhăn nheo, có răng mịn, màu lục thẫm hay lục nhạt tuỳ giống; cuống lá có tuyến. Hoa hình chuông màu đo đỏ, có khi trắng, thường mọc đơn độc, có cuống ngắn. Quả hạch hình cầu, có một rãnh bên rõ, phủ lông tơ mịn, khi chín hơi có màu đỏ, vỏ quả trong hoá gỗ bao lấy hạt (nên người ta gọi là quả hạch).

Mùa hoa tháng 1-4, quả tháng 5-9.

Bộ phận dùng: Hạt – Semen Persicae, thường gọi là Ðào nhân. Lá và hoa cũng thường được dùng.

Nơi sống và thu hái: Cây của Bắc Trung Quốc và Mông Cổ, đã được trồng lâu đời ở nước ta. Ðào thích nghi với vùng khí hậu nhiệt đới núi cao các tỉnh Lào Cai, Hà Giang, Lạng Sơn. Ðào cũng được trồng ở những nơi có khí hậu mát và ấm ở miền Bắc nước ta. Người ta ăn quả lấy hạch. Ðập vỡ vỏ lấy hạt, ta thường gọi là nhân, nên mới có tên là Ðào nhân, thực ra đó mới là hạt Ðào, đem phơi hoặc sây khô. Lá thu hái quanh năm, dùng tươi.

Thành phần hoá học: Phần thịt của quả Ðào chứa chất màu (carotenoid, lycopen, cryptoxanthin, zeaxanthin), 15% đường, acid hữu cơ (acid citric, acid tariric), vitamin C, acid clorogenic, ít tinh dầu. Hạt chứa 50% dầu béo, 3,5% amygdalin. 0,40-0,70%, tinh dầu, ennulsin; còn có acid prussie, cholin, acetylcholin. Lá Ðào chứa amygdalin, tanin, coumarin. Hoa chớm nở chứa glucosid, trifolin. Nhựa Ðào chứa I-arabinose, d-xylose. I-rhamnose, acid d-glucuromic.

Tính vị, tác dụng: Ðào nhân có vị đắng, ngọt, tính bình, có tác dụng phá huyết, khử tích trệ, nhuận táo, hoạt trướng, lợi tiểu. Lá Ðào có vị đắng, tính bình, có tác dụng làm tan kết tụ và giảm đau, ngoài ra còn có tác dụng lợi tiểu mạnh. Người ta đã nghiên cứu về các tác dụng ức chế sự đông máu, tác dụng chống dị ứng, tác dụng chống viêm của nhân Ðào, tác dụng diệt khuẩn, tẩy và diệt giun của lá Ðào.

Công dụng, chỉ định và phối hợp: Ðào nhân, dùng sống trị kinh nguyệt bế tắc, sinh hòn cục, bụng dưới đầy, đau, vấp ngã ứ huyết; dùng chín thì hoạt huyết, chữa đại tiện khó đi do huyết táo, ngày dùng 6-12g dạng thuốc sắc. Ðào nhân còn dùng chữa ho như hạt mơ. Lá Ðào thường dùng sắc nước hoặc vò ra lấy nước tắm ghẻ, sưng ngứa, chốc lở, xát và ngâm chữa đau chân. Hoa Ðào có khi cũng được dùng làm thuốc thông tiểu tiện và tẩy dùng chữa thuỷ thũng, bí đại tiện. Ngày dùng 3-5g hãm uống. Nhựa Ðào dùng trị đái ra dưỡng trấp, đái đường.

Ðơn thuốc:

1. Chữa kinh nguyệt không đều, đau bụng máu: Ðào nhân, Hồng hoa, Ngưu tất, Tô mộc, Mần tưới, Nghệ vàng đều bằng nhau, mỗi vị 8-15g sắc uống.

2. Chữa bí đại tiện: Dùng Ðào nhân 40g luộc ăn vào lúc đói.

3. Chữa đại tiểu tiện không thông: Dùng lá Ðào một nắm to, giã vắt lấy nước cốt uống.

4. Chữa phù thũng: Dùng vỏ cây Ðào ngâm rượu uống.

5. Chữa đái dưỡng trấp: Dùng nhựa cây Ðào 12g tán nhỏ uống với nước sắc. Dây tơ hồng 30g làm thang.

6. Chữa đái dưỡng: Dùng nhựa Ðào 20g tán nhỏ uống với nước sắc. Ðịa cốt bì và Râu ngô mỗi vị 30g làm thang.

7. Chữa chốc lở, rôm sảy, sưng âm hộ: Giã lá Ðào tươi xoa xát.

8. Chữa phù, đại tiện táo bón: Dùng hoa Ðào 3-5g, sắc uống.

9. Chữa bại liệt nửa người: lấy 2000 nhân quả Ðào đã bóc vỏ cho vào một lít rưỡi rượu để ngâm 21 ngày, vớt nhân Ðào đem phơi khô sấy dòn, tán nhỏ mịn, trộn với nước cháo cho vừa dẻo làm viên to bằng hạt đậu đen, mỗi ngày uống 30 viên với một thìa rượu ngâm nước của nó.

10. Chữa đau vùng tim đột ngột: Lấy 30 g nhân hạt Ðào bóc vỏ giã nhừ, cho vào một chén nước đun kỹ để uống 3 lần.

Kiêng kỵ: Không có ứ trệ, đàn bà có thai không nên dùng.

________________________________________________________________

**** plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=prpe3

**** www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Prunus+persica
( Clickr on link to read more, please )

Edible Uses
Edible Parts: Flowers; Fruit; Oil; Oil; Seed.
Edible Uses: Gum; Oil; Oil; Tea.

Fruit – raw, cooked or dried for later use[1, 2, 34, 46]. The fruit is often used in ice creams, pies, jams etc[183]. When fully ripe, the fruit of the best forms are very juicy with a rich delicious flavour[K]. Wild trees in the Himalayas yield about 36.5kg of fruit a year[194]. The fruit of the wild form contains about 5.2% sugars, 2% protein, 1.6% ash. Vitamin C content is 2.3mg per 100g[194]. The fruit is a good source of vitamin A[201]. Fruits of the wild peach are richer in nutrients than the cultivated forms[194]. The size of fruit varies widely between cultivars and the wild form, it can be up to 7cm in diameter and contains one seed[200]. Flowers – raw or cooked. Added to salads or used as a garnish[183]. They can also be brewed into a tea[183]. The distilled flowers yield a white liquid which can be used to impart a flavour resembling the seed[183]. Seed – raw or cooked. Do not eat if it is too bitter, seed can contain high concentrations of hydrocyanic acid. See the notes above on toxicity. A semi-drying oil is obtained from the seed[57]. Although the report does not mention edibility it can be assumed that it is edible. The seed contains up to 45% oil[218]. A gum is obtained from the stem. It can be used for chewing[64].

Composition
Figures in grams (g) or miligrams (mg) per 100g of food.
Fruit (Dry weight)
350 Calories per 100g
Water : 0%
Protein: 5.5g; Fat: 1.4g; Carbohydrate: 90g; Fibre: 10g; Ash: 4g;
Minerals – Calcium: 60mg; Phosphorus: 135mg; Iron: 6.5mg; Magnesium: 0mg; Sodium: 30mg; Potassium: 1800mg; Zinc: 0mg;
Vitamins – A: 3000mg; Thiamine (B1): 0.15mg; Riboflavin (B2): 0.25mg; Niacin: 4.7mg; B6: 0mg; C: 70mg;
Reference: [ 218]
Notes: The figures given here are the median of a range quoted in the report.

**** en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peach
The peach tree, Prunus persica, is a deciduous tree, native to China, where it was first cultivated. It bears an edible juicy fruit called a peach. The species name persica refers to its widespread cultivation in Persia, whence it was transplanted to Europe. It is classified with the almond in the subgenus Amygdalus, distinguished from the other subgenera by the corrugated seed shell. It belongs to the subfamily Prunoideae of the family Rosaceae.

Description

Prunus persica grows to 4–10 m (13–33 ft) tall and 6 in. in diameter. The leaves are lanceolate, 7–16 cm (2.8–6.3 in) long, 2–3 cm (0.79–1.2 in) broad, pinnately veined. The flowers are produced in early spring before the leaves; they are solitary or paired, 2.5–3 cm diameter, pink, with five petals.
The fruit has yellow or whitish flesh, a delicate aroma, and a skin that is either velvety (peaches) or smooth (nectarines) in different cultivars. The flesh is very delicate and easily bruised in some cultivars, but is fairly firm in some commercial varieties, especially when green. The single, large seed is red-brown, oval shaped, approximately 1.3–2 cm long, and is surrounded by a wood-like husk. Peaches, along with cherries, plums and apricots, are stone fruits (drupes). There are various heirloom varieties, including the Indian peach, which arrives in the latter part of the summer

Taxonomy

The scientific name persica, along with the word "peach" itself and its cognates in many European languages, derives from an early European belief that peaches were native to Persia (now Iran). The modern botanical consensus is that they originate in China, and were introduced to Persia and the Mediterranean region along the Silk Road before Christian times.[2] The botanical name is derived from the Greek word for the fruit after it was introduced into the Mediterranean through Persia and from China.
Cultivated peaches are divided into clingstones and freestones, depending on whether the flesh sticks to the stone or not; both can have either white or yellow flesh. Peaches with white flesh typically are very sweet with little acidity, while yellow-fleshed peaches typically have an acidic tang coupled with sweetness, though this also varies greatly. Both colours often have some red on their skin. Low-acid white-fleshed peaches are the most popular kinds in China, Japan, and neighbouring Asian countries, while Europeans and North Americans have historically favoured the acidic, yellow-fleshed kinds.

( Clickr on link to read more , please )

Planting
Most peach trees sold by nurseries are named cultivars budded or grafted onto a suitable rootstock. Trees can be grown from either a peach or nectarine seed, but the fruit quality of the resulting tree will be very unpredictable.
Peaches are recommended to be located in full sun, and to allow good air flow, to assist the cold air to flow away on frosty nights and to keep the area cool in summer. Peaches are recommended to be planted in early winter, as this allows time for the roots to establish and to sustain the new spring growth. When planting in rows, it is recommended to plant the rows north to south.[28]
For optimum growth, peach trees prefer a constant supply of water, which should be increased shortly before harvest. The best-tasting fruit is produced when the peach is watered throughout the season. Drip irrigation is ideal, with at least one dripper per tree. Although it is better to use multiple drippers around the tree, this is not necessary.[28] A quarter of the root being watered should be sufficient.
Peaches have a high nutrient requirement, needing more nitrogen than most other fruit trees. An NPK fertilizer should be applied regularly, and an additional mulch of poultry manure in autumn soon after the harvest could benefit the tree. If the leaves of the peach are yellow or small, this is a sign that the tree needs more nitrogen. Blood meal and bone meal, 3–5 kilograms (6.6–11 lb) per mature tree, or calcium ammonium nitrate, 0.5–1 kilogram (1.1–2.2 lb), are suitable fertilizers. This also applies if the tree is putting forth little growth.
If the full number of peaches are left on the branches, they will be under-sized and lacking in sugar and flavour. In dry conditions, extra watering is recommended. The fruit are normally thinned when they have reached 2 centimetres (0.79 in) in diameter, usually about two months after flowering. Fresh fruit are best consumed on the day of picking, and do not store well. They are best eaten when the fruit is slightly soft, having aroma, and heated by the sun.

Storage
Peaches should be stored at room temperature and refrigeration should be avoided as this can lessen the taste of the peach. Peaches are climacteric[29] [30] [31] and hence they will continue ripening after being picked from the tree

Cultural significance
Peaches are known in China, Japan, Korea, Laos, and Vietnam, not only as a popular fruit, but also for the many cultural traditions, such as the Peaches of Immortality, and folk tales associated with it.
Peach blossoms are highly prized in Chinese culture, and because they appear before leaves sprout. The ancient Chinese believed the peach to possess more vitality than any other tree. When early rulers of China visited their territories, they were preceded by sorcerers armed with peach rods to protect them from spectral evils. On New Year’s Eve, local magistrates would cut peach wood branches and place them over their doors to protect against evil influences.[33] Peach kernels (桃仁 táo rén) are a common ingredient used in traditional Chinese medicine to dispel blood stasis, counter inflammation and reduce allergies.[34]
It was in an orchard of flowering peach trees that Liu Bei, Guan Yu, and Zhang Fei took an oath of brotherhood in the opening chapter of the classic Chinese novel Romance of the Three Kingdoms. Another peach forest, the “Peach Blossom Spring” by poet Tao Yuanming is the setting of the favourite Chinese fable and a metaphor of utopias. A peach tree growing on a precipice was where the Taoist master Zhang Daoling tested his disciples.[35]
Momotaro, one of Japan’s most noble and semihistorical heroes, was born from within an enormous peach floating down a stream. Momotaro or "Peach Boy" went on to fight evil oni and face many adventures.
In Korea, peaches have been cultivated from ancient times. According to Samguk Sagi, peach trees were planted during the Three Kingdoms of Korea period, and Sallim gyeongje also mentions cultivation skills of peach trees. Peach is seen as the fruit of happiness, riches, honours and longevity. It is one of the ten immortal plants and animals, so peaches appear in many minhwa (folk paintings). Peaches and peach trees are believed to chase away spirits, so peaches are not placed on tables for jesa (ancestor veneration), unlike other fruits.[36][37]
A Vietnamese mythic history states that, in the spring of 1789, after marching to Ngọc Hồi and then winning a great victory against invaders from the Qing Dynasty of China, the King Quang Trung ordered a messenger to gallop to Phú Xuân citadel (now Huế) and deliver a flowering peach branch to the Princess Ngọc Hân. This took place on the fifth day of the first lunar month, two days before the predicted end of the battle. The branch of peach flowers that was sent from the north to the centre of Vietnam was not only a message of victory from the King to his wife, but also the start of a new spring of peace and happiness for all the Vietnamese people. In addition, since the land of Nhật Tân had freely given that very branch of peach flowers to the King, it became the loyal garden of his dynasty.
It was a by peach tree that the protagonists of the Tale of Kieu fell in love. And in Vietnam, the blossoming peach flower is the signal of spring. Finally, peach bonsai trees are used as decoration during Vietnamese New Year (Tết) in northern Vietnam.

Nutrition and research
A medium peach is 75 g (2.6 oz). It should have 30 Cal, 7 g of carbohydrate (6 g sugars and 1 g fibre), 1 g of protein, 140 mg of potassium, and 8% of the daily value (DV) for vitamin C.[38]
As with many other members of the rose family, peach seeds contain cyanogenic glycosides, including amygdalin (note the subgenus designation: Amygdalus). These substances are capable of decomposing into a sugar molecule and hydrogen cyanide gas. While peach seeds are not the most toxic within the rose family, that dubious honour going to the bitter almond, large doses of these chemicals from any source are hazardous to human health.
Peach allergy or intolerance is a relatively common form of hypersensitivity to proteins contained in peaches and related fruit (almonds). Symptoms range from local symptoms (e.g. oral allergy syndrome, contact urticaria) to systemic symptoms, including anaphylaxis (e.g. urticaria, angioedema, gastrointestinal and respiratory symptoms).[39] Adverse reactions are related to the "freshness" of the fruit: peeled or canned fruit may be tolerated.

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